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Storage#

Mainflux supports various storage databases in which messages are stored:

  • CassandraDB
  • MongoDB
  • InfluxDB
  • PostgreSQL

These storages are activated via docker-compose add-ons.

The <project_root>/docker folder contains an addons directory. This directory is used for various services that are not core to the Mainflux platform but could be used for providing additional features.

In order to run these services, core services, as well as the network from the core composition, should be already running.

Writers#

Writers provide an implementation of various message writers. Message writers are services that consume Mainflux messages, transform them to desired format and store them in specific data store. The path of the configuration file can be set using the following environment variables: MF_CASSANDRA_WRITER_CONFIG_PATH, MF_POSTGRES_WRITER_CONFIG_PATH, MF_INFLUX_WRITER_CONFIG_PATH and MF_MONGO_WRITER_CONFIG_PATH.

Subscriber config#

Each writer can filter messages based on subjects list that is set in config.toml configuration file. If you want to listen on all subjects, just set the field subjects in the [subscriber] section as ["channels.>"], otherwise pass the list of subjects. Here is an example:

[subscriber]
subjects = ["channels.*.messages.bedroom.temperature","channels.*.messages.bedroom.humidity"]

Regarding the Subtopics Section in the messaging page, the example channels/<channel_id>/messages/bedroom/temperature can be filtered as "channels.*.bedroom.temperature". The formatting of this filtering list is determined by the NATS format (Subject-Based Messaging & Wildcards).

Transformer config#

There are two types of transformers: SenML and JSON. The transformer type is set in configuration file.

For SenML transformer, supported message payload formats are SenML+CBOR and SenML+JSON. They are configurable over content_type field in the [transformer] section and expect application/senml+json or application/senml+cbor formats. Here is an example:

[transformer]
format = "senml"
content_type = "application/senml+json"

Usually, the payload of the IoT message contains message time. It can be in different formats (like base time and record time in the case of SenML) and the message field can be under the arbitrary key. Usually, we would want to map that time to the Mainflux Message field Created and for that reason, we need to configure the Transformer to be able to read the field, parse it using proper format and location (if devices time is different than the service time), and map it to Mainflux Message.

For JSON transformer you can configure time_fields in the [transformer] section to use arbitrary fields from the JSON message payload as timestamp. time_fields is represented by an array of objects with fields field_name, field_format and location that represent respectively the name of the JSON key to use as timestamp, the time format to use for the field value and the time location. Here is an example:

[transformer]
format = "json"
time_fields = [{ field_name = "seconds_key", field_format = "unix",    location = "UTC"},
               { field_name = "millis_key",  field_format = "unix_ms", location = "UTC"},
               { field_name = "micros_key",  field_format = "unix_us", location = "UTC"},
               { field_name = "nanos_key",   field_format = "unix_ns", location = "UTC"}]


JSON transformer can be used for any JSON payload. For the messages that contain _JSON array as the root element_, JSON Transformer does normalization of the data: it creates a separate JSON message for each JSON object in the root. In order to be processed and stored properly, JSON messages need to contain message format information. For the sake of simplicity, nested JSON objects are flatten to a single JSON object in InfluxDB, using composite keys separated by the `/` separator. This implies that the separator character (`/`) _is not allowed in the JSON object key_ while using InfluxDB. Apart from InfluxDB, separator character (`/`) usage in the JSON object key is permitted, since other [Writer](storage.md#writers) types do not flat the nested JSON objects. For example, the following JSON object:
```json
{
    "name": "name",
    "id":8659456789564231564,
    "in": 3.145,
    "alarm": true,
    "ts": 1571259850000,
    "d": {
        "tmp": 2.564,
        "hmd": 87,
        "loc": {
            "x": 1,
            "y": 2
        }
    }
}

for InfluxDB will be transformed to:

{
    "name": "name",
    "id":8659456789564231564,
    "in": 3.145,
    "alarm": true,
    "ts": 1571259850000,
    "d/tmp": 2.564,
    "d/hmd": 87,
    "d/loc/x": 1,
    "d/loc/y": 2
}

while for other Writers it will preserve its original format.

The message format is stored in the subtopic. It's the last part of the subtopic. In the example:

http://localhost:8185/channels/<channelID>/messages/home/temperature/myFormat

the message format is myFormat. It can be any valid subtopic name, JSON transformer is format-agnostic. The format is used by the JSON message consumers so that they can process the message properly. If the format is not present (i.e. message subtopic is empty), JSON Transformer will report an error. Message writers will store the message(s) in the table/collection/measurement (depending on the underlying database) with the name of the format (which in the example is myFormat). Mainflux writers will try to save any format received (whether it will be successful depends on the writer implementation and the underlying database), but it's recommended that publishers don't send different formats to the same subtopic.

InfluxDB, InfluxDB Writer and Grafana#

From the project root execute the following command:

docker-compose -f docker/addons/influxdb-writer/docker-compose.yml up -d

This will install and start:

  • InfluxDB - time series database
  • InfluxDB writer - message repository implementation for InfluxDB
  • Grafana - tool for database exploration and data visualization and analytics

Those new services will take some additional ports:

  • 8086 by InfluxDB
  • 8900 by InfluxDB writer service
  • 3001 by Grafana

To access Grafana, navigate to http://localhost:3001 and login with: admin, password: admin

Cassandra and Cassandra Writer#

./docker/addons/cassandra-writer/init.sh

Please note that Cassandra may not be suitable for your testing environment because of its high system requirements.

MongoDB and MongoDB Writer#

docker-compose -f docker/addons/mongodb-writer/docker-compose.yml up -d

MongoDB default port (27017) is exposed, so you can use various tools for database inspection and data visualization.

PostgreSQL and PostgreSQL Writer#

docker-compose -f docker/addons/postgres-writer/docker-compose.yml up -d

Postgres default port (5432) is exposed, so you can use various tools for database inspection and data visualization.

Readers#

Readers provide an implementation of various message readers. Message readers are services that consume normalized (in SenML format) Mainflux messages from data storage and opens HTTP API for message consumption. Installing corresponding writer before reader is implied.

Each of the Reader services exposes the same HTTP API for fetching messages on its default port.

To read sent messages on channel with id channel_id you should send GET request to /channels/<channel_id>/messages with thing access token in Authorization header. That thing must be connected to channel with channel_id

Response should look like this:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
Date: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 18:56:19 GMT
Content-Length: 228

{
    "messages": [
        {
            "Channel": 1,
            "Publisher": 2,
            "Protocol": "mqtt",
            "Name": "name:voltage",
            "Unit": "V",
            "Value": 5.6,
            "Time": 48.56
        },
        {
            "Channel": 1,
            "Publisher": 2,
            "Protocol": "mqtt",
            "Name": "name:temperature",
            "Unit": "C",
            "Value": 24.3,
            "Time": 48.56
        }
    ]
}

Note that you will receive only those messages that were sent by authorization token's owner. You can specify offset and limit parameters in order to fetch specific group of messages. An example of HTTP request looks like:

curl -s -S -i  -H "Authorization: Thing <thing_key>" http://localhost:<service_port>/channels/<channel_id>/messages?offset=0&limit=5&format=<subtopic>

If you don't provide offset and limit parameters, default values will be used instead: 0 for offset and 10 for limit. The format parameter indicates the last subtopic of the message. As indicated under the Writers section, the message format is stored in the subtopic as the last part of the subtopic. In the example:

http://localhost:8185/channels/<channelID>/messages/home/temperature/myFormat

the message format is myFormat and the value for format=<subtopic> is format=myFormat.

InfluxDB Reader#

To start InfluxDB reader, execute the following command:

docker-compose -f docker/addons/influxdb-reader/docker-compose.yml up -d

Cassandra Reader#

To start Cassandra reader, execute the following command:

docker-compose -f docker/addons/cassandra-reader/docker-compose.yml up -d

MongoDB Reader#

To start MongoDB reader, execute the following command:

docker-compose -f docker/addons/mongodb-reader/docker-compose.yml up -d

PostgreSQL Reader#

To start PostgreSQL reader, execute the following command:

docker-compose -f docker/addons/postgres-reader/docker-compose.yml up -d